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Citation Styles, Tutorials, and Tools: MLA
Style

MLA changes

The latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) by the Modern Language Association includes some noteworthy changes:

  • Titles are no longer underlined, but italicized
  • Medium of the publication (eg. print or web) is required for every entry
  • URLs are no longer required for web publications, but need to be used if the item is difficult to find
  • Volume and issue numbers of journals are required (if both are present)

Books

BOOKS

GENERAL FORMAT
AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, YearPublished. PublicationMedium.
1 author Pinney, Thomas. History of Wine in America: From Prohibition to the Present. Berkeley: U California P, 2005. Print.
2 authors Foster, James, and J. David Nightingale. A Short Course in General Relativity. 3rd ed. New York: Springer, 2006. Print.
3 or more authors Patten, Michael A., Guy McCaskie, and Philip Unitt. Birds of the Salton Sea: Status, Biogeography, and Ecology. Berkeley: U of California P, 2003. Print.
Corporate author American Bar Association. Model Code of Judicial Conduct. Chicago: Center for Professional Responsibility, ABA, 2006. Print.
Editors Donohue, John J., and John L. Esposito, eds. Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives. New York: Oxford UP. 2007. Print.
Electronic book Storrie, Paul D., and Ron Randall. Graphic Universe: Beowulf. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Group, 2007. Web. NetLibrary. 8 July 2009.
Translated book Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: Vintage-Random House, 1988. Print.
Multivolume work Ford, Boris, ed. The Cambridge Guide to the Arts in Britain. 9 vols. Cambridge (England): Cambridge UP, 1988-1991. Print.
Encyclopedia article Escobar, Edward. “Zoot Suit.” Encyclopedia of Latino Popular Culture. Ed. Cordelia Chávez Candelaria. Wesport: Greenwood P., 2004. Print.
Book chapter Cline, William R. "Dynamic Consideration." Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country. Washington D.C.: Center for Global Development: Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2007. Print.
Essay or chapter in an anthology or edited book Porter, Katherine Anne. “The Grave.” Downhome: an Anthology of Southern Women Writers. Ed. Susie Mee. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, 1995. 461-467. Print.

Articles and Periodicals (print and electronic)

ARTICLES and PERIODICALS (print and electronic)

GENERAL FORMAT (electronic) AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): PageNumber. Title of Database. PublicationMediumUsed. AccessDay AccessMonth AccessYear.
Article from Library Database Horne, Jen, David Knox, Jane Zusman, and Marty E. Zusman. “Tattoos and Piercings: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Interpretations of College Students. College Student Journal 41.4 (Dec. 2007, part B: 1011-1020). Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Jan. 2008.
Article in Public Domain or E-Journal Church, Deanna M., et al. “Lineage-Specific Biology Revealed by a Finished Genome Assembly of the Mouse.” PloS Biology 7.5 (2009): e1000112. Web. 30 May 2009.
Newspaper article Kristof, Kathy M. “New Student Repayment Plan is Based on Borrower’s Income.” Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 5 July 2009. Web. 6 July 2009.
GENERAL FORMAT
(print)
AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): PageNumber. PublicationMedium.
Journal article Wood, Susan Nelson, and Kim Quackenbush. “The Sorcerer’s Stone: A Touchstone for Readers of all Ages.” English Journal 90.3 (2001): 97-103. Print.
Newspaper article Kristof, Kathy M. “New Student Repayment Plan is Based on Borrower’s Income.” Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 3A+. Print.
Magazine article Mnookin, Seth. “The Da Vinci Clone?” Vanity Fair July 2006: 100+. Print.
Book Review               
Miner, Valerie. “Iowa Meditations.” Rev. of Gilead by Marilynne Robinson. The Women’s Review of Books Dec. 2004: 19+. Print.
Anonymous article “Education in America and Britain: Learning lessons From Private Schools.” Economist 2 July 2009: 20+. Print.

Audio and Visual materials

AUDIO and VISUAL MATERIALS

GENERAL FORMAT AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName. Title of entire work. YearCreated. Location, YearPublished. PublicationMedium.
Musical score Donizetti, Gaetano. Don Pasquale: An Opera in Three Acts with Italian English Text. 1842. New York: Belwin, 1969. Print. Kalmus Vocal Scores.
LP/CD/Streaming media Jackson, Michael. Thriller. Epic, 1993. CD.
Film/Audio Recording It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film.
Visual art Magritte, René. The Treachery of Images. 1929. Oil on canvas. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles.
Maps Michigan. Map. Chicago: Rand, 2000. Print.

Websites

WEBSITES

GENERAL FORMAT

AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName. “Title of the work.” Title of the overall website. CreationDay, CreationMonth, CreationYear. PublicationMedium. AccessDay AccessMonth, AccessYear.
Blog                        
Zúniga, Markos Moulitsas. “Bush’s Latest PR Hoax.” Daily Kos: State of the Nation. Web. 24 Aug. 2006. Web. 27 Aug. 2006.
Website                
Eaves, Morris, Robert Esseck, and Joseph Viscomi, eds. The William Blake Archive. Library of Congress, 9 May 2008. Web. 20 May 2008.
News website Levy, Steven. “Twitter: Is Brevity the Next Big Thing?” Newsweek, 9 Apr. 2007. Web. 15 May 2007.

Citation Style Manual

For more information on MLA citation formats, consult:

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 9th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009.    Reference Desk LB2369 .G53 2009 [Non-circulating]

More examples:

From Northern Michigan University
From Ohio State University
From OWL at Purdue University

 

The Manuals

 

For more information on MLA style format, consult:

Gibaldi, Joseph.  MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York, Modern Language Association, 2003. 6th edition. GT Library Call Number: LB2369 .G53 2003b, Information Services Desk, use in Library only.  This guide is for undergraduates.

Gibaldi, Joseph.  MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.  New York: Modern Language Association, 2008.  3rd edtion.  GT Library Call Number: PN147 .G444 2008.  Information Services Desk, use in Library only. This guide is for graduates, faculty, and professional writers.

More Examples

MLA Style -  From Purdue's OWL writing lab.

MLA Style Guide from Northern Michigan University.

This page adapted from a page by Yen Tran at the Univerisity of California Santa Barbara.  Many thanks!

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